Minggu, 08 April 2012

History and spiritualism ofNusantara (1)

Vaishnavism in Indonesia was centuries aged.
But its pure form only practiced by aristocratic
or Brahmin families. The Vedic theological
conception, spiritual thoughts, and way of life
was deeply rooted in most Indonesians native
customs, but the clearly visible form of Vedic
civilization or Hinduism today found only in Bali
or some parts of Java. Other denominations
such as Saivism, Sakta, Ganapatya, Saura, etc
also have their existence since the early rising
of Hindu-Buddhist Kingdom of Java, Bali, and
The earliest recorded history was about the
famous Mulavarman of Kutai in Kalimantan. He
donated thousands of cows to agnihotri
Brahmins and performed the biggest yajna
throughout the history of Nusantara. The
Ramayan and also some Sanskrit works, called
the present day Kalimantan as Barhina-dvipa,
which became Borneo. At the time of
Mulavarman, the Indian supposed to include
Nusantara as a part of Greater Kalinga. So by
Mulavarman’s virtuous performance of grand
sacrificial ceremony, his kingdom could be
designated as Kalingottamam, the word
perhaps changed to present day Kalimantan.
According to some historian, the word
Vaprakeshwar found in Mulavarman
inscriptions has some connection with Lord
Siva, and then they concluded that Mulavarman
and his subjects were Saivas. But the form of
his yajna performance was Vedic. It didn’t
seem involve the Agamic or Tantric elements of
any sort. The lack of archaeological remains of
temple worship from the time of Mulavarman
supposed to prove this probability.
Then we have Purnavarman of West Java. He
left inscription on stone with image of
Vishnupada sculpted on it. His kingdom’s name
Tarumanagara reminds us with Lord Vishnu.
Taruma is another name of Tulasi, the holy
basil, beloved of Vishnu. Some Agamic form of
worship and Pauranic styled Vaishnavism gain
their glory. After the tremendous growth of
Buddhism in Sumatra, Tarumanagara’s
influence and Vaishnavism was diminishing. In
India, especially at the Southern regions, the
growth of Buddhism as public religion rivaled
by the increasing growth of Agamic schools of
Vaishnavism and Saivism. Buddhism itself
became so Tantric in appearance. Kalinga and
other South Indian kingdoms such as Pallava
and Chola with all these form of Vaishnavism,
Saivism, and Buddhism gave their influence to
spiritual life of Nusantara.
The Sailendra of Sumatra (Srivijaya) and central
Java were Tantric-Mahayanic Buddhist. These
Sailendra kings supposed to the same Buddhist
Sailodbhavas of Kalinga, marginalized by
emerging power of Saivite Bhaumakaras. The
Sanjayas of Central Java might be descendant of
earlier Tarumanagara aristocracy. There was
unsaid competition of the two ruling dynasties
of Sailendra and Sanjaya, both in spiritual and
political ground. The two dynasties were each
patronizing Mahayana-Vajrayana Buddhism
and South Indian form of Vaishnavism and
Saivism. After the marriage between the prince
Pikatan of Sanjaya and princess
Pramodavardhani of Sailendra, these religions
have harmonious relationship. At this period
Saivism gain more popularity in people’s
religious life. Vaishnavism itself remain as the
religion of aristocracy and priestly-class. Then
the two find their place in Trinatha worship, a
unique faith, Kalinga by nature, similar with
Jagannath-dharma of Orissa. At this time,
Buddhism was Kalinga-influenced Tantrism or
Vajrayana, with its Tara worship at Kalasha
temple (Kalasan), Manjushri at Manjushri-griha
temple (Sewu), Mahavairochana at Mendut, and
Vajradhatu-mandala of world famous
Borobudur. Similarly, Hinduism also has same
reformed, with its Trinatha worship of
Parambrahman Temple (Prambanan), clearly
Kalinga in nature and origin. This is the time of
Nusantara’s pristine glory.
There’s no time in Nusantara, that non-theistic
concept ever seriously accepted. So even
Nusantara’s Buddhism hardly showed non-
theistic belief of Theravada. The whole spiritual
belief of Indonesian at that time was accepting
One Supreme Deity, called by different names,
comprehended by various theological and
philosophical views. This concept only found in
Jagannath-dharma of present day Orissa. The
religious believes of Indonesian, once again was
Kalinga in nature.
The worship of Trinatha as manifested form of
Parabrahman found it most perfect form in the
cult of Jagannath, Balabhadra, and Subhadra.
Here Jagannath representing Vishnu,
Balabhadra-Siva, and Subhadra-Brahma. This
belief of Subhadra as Brahma in disguised form
was described by the devotee-poet of the Lord,
Sri Yasobanta das. He has presented in this
connection in his Premabhakti Brahma Gita that
when Brahma was making out a divine plan to
create the universe, Mother Earth, the potential
force of Yogamaya Shakti, wished to have
divine union with him for the above purpose
and accordingly approached Brahma with a
fervent appeal on this score. Brahma was
dismayed at the appeal of Mother Earth. He
curtly turned down her offer. After all, Goddess
Earth, being the replica of Yogamaya Shakti,
had the status of divine mother in relation to
Brahma. How could he accept such an unusual
proposal? The very thinking of a phenomenon
like the above was a pernicious sin. However
Goddess Earth was cross with Brahma for his
avowed denial. She cursed Brahma saying "Oh,
the creator of the universe! By disagreeing to a
sacred divine cause, you have displayed utmost
disrespect to the women-class in general. So, as
a consequence of your unwanted action, you
will descend in the universe in the form of a
Brahma was stupendously flabbergasted, never
expecting such a catastrophe to befall him for a
rightful action on his part. Lord Vishnu
however appeared before him at this stage to
say that his appearance on earth is tethered to
a divine purpose. Vishnu said, 'in Kali Yuga,
when I would appear in the form of Jagannath,
you would be worshipped by my side as
Subhadra. People won't know that you are
Brahma in the form of Subhadra.' This is the
secret about the divine appearance of Subhadra
as Brahma on the Ratnavedi of the Grand
The three denominations of Vaishnava, Saiva,
and Sakta also found their harmony in this
Trimurti form as Jagannath is the Supreme God
of Vaishnavas, Balabhadra is of Saiva, and
Subhadra is of Sakta. Then the Vajrayana
Buddhist, historically originated from
Indrabhuti of Sambhala (Sambalpur) in Orissa,
considered the Trimurti as their Tri Ratna,
Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. The Jnanasiddhi
of Indrabhuti clearly showed that Jagannath is
the Original (Adi) Buddha worshipped by
Vajrayana sect of Buddhism. This Adi Buddha
concept found in Mantrayana-Vajrayana is
focused on Jagannath-Buddha. Then the
Jagannath-Buddha of Orissan Vajrayana found
His way to Nusantara as the cult of
Mahavairochana, before it reach China, Korea,
and finally Japan. The Mahavairochana-sutra
and iconographic treatise of
Sarvatathagatasara-samgraha were Orissa in
origin. Nusantara highly influenced by this
form of Buddhism. The
Mahakarunagarbhodbhava-mandala and
Vajradhatu-mandala which centred on
Jagannath-Buddha-Mahavairochana was
manifested as the great Borobudur Temple of
Indonesia. The syncretism concept of The
Supreme Buddha (Jagannath) and its connection
with Trinatha Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, was found
for the first time in Central Java. Then this
concept further formulated in the period of
early East Javanese Kingdom of Ishanavansa in
the form of Tutur Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan,
a classic Javanese Buddhist catechism.
So Indonesian Vaishnavism, Saivism, and
Buddhism found their way to common people in
the form of Trinatha worship, since
Vaishnavism hold Narayana as the source of
Trinatha, Saivism hold Paramasiva as their
source, and Buddhism hold The Adi Buddha.
Narayana, Paramasiva, and Adi Buddha are
actually one in identity with Lord Jagannath of
Orissa. The great temple called Parambrahman
(Prambanan) in Central Java was manifesting
this theological concept of Nusantara.

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