Minggu, 08 April 2012

History and spiritualism ofNusantara (2)

After the reign of Raka i Wawa or Sri
Vijayalokanathottunga (924 – 929 ce), the center
of civilization and great kingdom of Javanese
Hindu resettled on East Java by Pu Sindok or
Ishanottungadeva, the vansakarta of
Ishanavansa. The whole Nusantara came to her
unique form of Vedic and Agamic based culture
and also got its shape influence by Buddhism. The
pure practices of Vaishnavism, Saivism, and
Tantric Buddhism only found their place mainly in
aristocracy. The common people prefer their
more liberal syncretic form. By faith or by blood
tie, the Javanese aristocrats and Brahmins were
connected to their Vaishnava ancestors of India,
so it was rather difficult for them to leave the
practices, unlike the common peoples.
Then we came to the end of Ishanavansa during
the reign of Kritajaya of Kadiri. Kritajaya was
defeated by Rangarajasa, his vassal, a king that
came from intermarriage of a native girl with
Brahmin. He was vansakarta of the new Rajasa
clan and built the kingdom of Singhasari. Thus
end the great influence of Vaishnava Rajas from
the Varman of Kalimantan and West Java,
Sanjayas, and Ishanas. Rangarajasa probably has
more inclination toward Saivism or Buddhism
rather than Vaishnavism, he called himself Girisha-
atmaja (Siva’s Son). Rajasa himself married one
Ken Dedes, a daughter of famous Buddhist
master, Pu Purva of Panavijen. She was forcibly
married by a vassal king of Tumapel, before
Rajasa murdered this former husband of her and
took her as his consort. This word Girisha also
could have same meaning with Sailendra. Was
Rajasa actually a descendant of Sailendravansa?
Was that mean he wants to resurrect the pure
blood of Sailendravansa, once the great rulers of
Java? We don’t have any information other than
mere speculation. But his greatest descendant,
Kritanagara was practicing full-fledged Tantric
Buddhism perhaps Kalachakrayana, the same
patronized by Sailendra kings.
Previously, Kritanagara tried to follow the politic
similar as intermarriage between Pikatan-
Pramodavardhani, of Sailendra and Sanjayavansa,
for stability of power. Though Kadiri once was
defeated by Rajasa, but the descendant of
Ishanavansa-Sanjayavansha was continued by
king of Kadiri, who now turned to became vassal
of Singhasari. So Kritanagara who has no son, got
his daughters married to two princes. One was
Vijaya from his own Rajasavansa and the other
was Ardharaja from Kadiri, son of Jayakathvanga,
thus from Ishanavansa. One day Kadiri organized
rebellion toward Singhasari and was tried to
again occupy the sovereign power of all Java by
war. Kritanagara was killed in the palace without
knowing anything about Kadiri’s attack. The
chronicle of Bilvatikta, Nagarakritagama, describes
the king as performing Ganachakra-puja at that
time. But that didn’t take a long time for Vijaya, by
genius war strategy, to take the throne forever
from Jayakathvanga. This was almost a total
defeat, which swept away the strategic influence
of Ishanavansa from Nusantara. Thus end the
prowess of once great dynasty of Vaishnava kings
in Indonesia.
Vijaya then removed the capital of Java from
Singhasari, his father in law’s citadel, to Trik,
where he built the magnificent kingdom of
Bilvatikta or Majapahit. This was the beginning of
a greatest empire in Nusantara and
Suvarnabhumi. Bilvatikta grow as a wonderful
unifying force in the South Eastern region of Asia
under the reign of Rajasanagara (Hayam Wuruk)
and his prime minister, the great Gajamada. As a
great nation, Bilvatikta formulate religion of the
country. This was a syncretism of Saivism and
Tantric Buddhism, called the Saiva-buddha-agama
(Agama Siwa Buddha). At the time of her pristine
glory and her fall under Islamic force, the Saiva-
buddha-agama became national religion of
Bilvatikta. The literary work of this religious system
was the book of Sutasoma. The saying of this
book about unity of Saivism and Buddhism, which
also applicable to other differences, became
national slogan of The Republic of Indonesia. It
was jinatva-sivatva tunggal, bhinneka tunggal ika,
tan hana dharma mangrwa. (Buddha and Siva are
One. It was different but it was one. There is no
duality in dharma). The phrase bhinneka tunggal
ika : It was different (bhinna). It was one
(tunggal). It was unity in diversity.
So Nusantara was a land of great Vedic kings and
Brahmins. She has such a wonderful spiritual
legacy. Bali and Java deeply influenced by Veda-
dharma, and any local customs, ceremonies,
social etiquette, was Hindu by nature and of Vedic
origin. She has developed the most refined Vedic
way of life and made it became her own culture.
Anything non Vedic actually was foreign to her.

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